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Biblical Archaeology Society of Northern Virginia (BASONOVA)

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Upcoming Lectures

BASONOVA and BAF are delighted to announce a joint resumption of their lecture series on the ancient Near East and Eastern Mediterranean. Their presentations will be given by scholars in the fields of archaeology, history, art, religion, science, and texts. This series will be broadcast "live" via Zoom, and "attendees" will be able to ask questions of the presenters.


Sunday, October 25, 2020, at 7:30 PM EST via Zoom

Destination: Holy Of Holies
An Archaeological Walk Through The Jerusalem Temple

Joan Branham

Co-Hosted by B'nai Israel Congregation & Haberman Institute for Jewish Studies

Co-Sponsored by Temple Rodef Shalom

King Herod designed and built the Jerusalem Temple in the late first century BCE. Herod wanted a grander complex than the one hastily constructed after the return from the Babylonian exile. His Temple lasted less than a century, as it was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE. In its time, it was, and continues to be, a powerful symbol of sacred space; it continues to influence Judaism and Christianity to this day. It has been emulated, co-opted, exploited, and reinterpreted by religious traditions, from early churches and synagogues to Orlando's evangelical theme park with its mock Temple recreation.

This illustrated talk will serve as a guide through the Jerusalem Temple by following in the footsteps of the High Priest and worshippers (including Jesus) and navigating the barriers of sanctity and systems of blood, purity, sacrifice, and gender.

Joan Branham is Professor of Art History and Associate Dean, School of Arts and Sciences at Providence College. She is also Chair of the W.F. Albright Institute for Archaeological Research.

Prior to the event, an email will be sent with instructions on how to access the lecture.

Sea Peoples

Wednesday, November 18, 2020 at 8 pm via Zoom

Sea Peoples in the Promised Land

Robert Stieglitz

Recent archaeological evidence unearthed in Israel and on Cyprus has shed new light on the Philistines, a leading tribe in the confederation the Egyptians termed ‘Peoples of the Sea’. These Sea Peoples settled along the coasts of Canaan at the very end of the Bronze Age (circa 1200 BCE). 

Their material culture reveals that these newcomers to the Promised Land, together with allies such as the Sikala, brought from their Aegeo-Anatolian homeland a sophisticated heritage including ashlar architecture and innovations in naval technology. 

Some Sea People were literate, using a syllabic script called Cypro-Minoan. Biblical narratives and Egyptian records both portray the Sea Peoples as highly organized warriors. The Philistines gave their name to their new homeland as Philistia (Pelešet/Plšt/Pilišti) whence the Greek transliteration as Palaistin? gave us the term Palestine. 

Robert Stieglitz, Professor Emeritus at  Rutgers University

The Wandering Arameans

Wednesday, December 2, 2020 at 8 PM EST via Zoom

The Wandering Arameans in Egypt: New Light on the Samarian and Judean Diaspora

Tawny Holm, Penn State University

The Hebrew Bible views Egypt as the location of both slavery and refuge. The “wandering Aramean” ancestor mentioned in Deuteronomy 26:5 was a slave in Egypt, whereas the prophet Jeremiah and others chose to flee there after the fall of Samaria/Israel and Judah. This presentation offers a look at the evidence for diaspora life in Egypt found in Papyrus Amherst 63, a long and difficult text written in Aramaic but using the Demotic Egyptian script.

The many compositions in the papyrus reflect the religious traditions and collective cultural memory of a group of Aramaic speakers in Egypt, including Samarians and Judeans. It contains hymns that praise Yaho/Yahweh over other deities, and even an idealized description of their arrival in a new land: “I come from Judah; my brother has been brought from Samaria; and now, a man is bringing up my sister from Jerusalem.”

Tawny Holm is Associate Professor at Penn State University in the Dept. of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies & Jewish Studies Program


Wednesday, December 23, 2020 at 8 pm EST via Zoom

Writing on the Wall: Graffiti and the Forgotten Jews of Antiquity

Karen Stern

Just like their neighbors throughout the eastern and southern Mediterranean, Mesopotamia, Arabia, and Egypt, ancient Jews scribbled and drew graffiti everyplace — in and around markets, hippodromes, theaters, pagan temples, open cliffs, sanctuaries, and even inside burial caves and synagogues. This presentation reveals what these markings tell us about the men and women who made them: people whose lives, beliefs, and behaviors eluded commemoration in grand literary and architectural works.

Making compelling analogies with modern graffiti practices, this presentation will demonstrate the overlooked connections between Jews and their neighbors, showing how popular Jewish practices of prayer, mortuary commemoration, commerce, and civic engagement regularly crossed ethnic and religious boundaries.

Illustrated throughout with examples of ancient graffiti, this lecture provides a tantalizingly intimate glimpse into the cultural worlds of forgotten populations living at the crossroads of Judaism, Christianity, paganism, and earliest Islam.

Karen Stern, Professor in the History Department at Brooklyn College

Canaanite Army

Wednesday, January 6, 2021, at 8 PM EST via Zoom

Egyptian Rule and Canaanite Resistance as Seen from Jaffa

Aaron Burke, UCLA

Excavations of the Egyptian New Kingdom fortress in Jaffa, on the southern side of Tel Aviv, were undertaken from 1956 to 2014. As the only Egyptian fortress that has been excavated in Canaan, its archaeological record, particularly the evidence from several dramatic destructions, provides a unique perspective on Egyptian rule and local resistance to it from ca. 1460 to 1125 B.C.E.

The archaeological evidence, taken together with textual sources, yields a picture of Canaanite resistance to the Egyptian military presence in Jaffa that originated in centers located throughout the coastal plain and persisted for several centuries until the Egyptians withdrew their garrisons. This presentation is drawn from excavations directed by the speaker and undertaken by the Jaffa Cultural Heritage Project between 2011 and 2014.

Aaron Burke is Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology, the Levant and Ancient Israel at UCLA



Discoveries At Nefertiti's Sun Temple

Jacquelyn Williamson

This event is sponsored by the DC chapter of ARCE (American Research Center in Egypt)

Stone relief fragments were recently excavated from Kom el-Nana at Tell el-Amarna in Egypt, the site of Nefertiti’s Sun Temple. They date to approximately 1350 BCE, the period when Pharaoh Akhenaten closed Egyptian temples and dismissed the priesthood, declared the sun deity Aten as the true God, and with his wife Nefertiti established a new capital of Egypt at Amarna.

In an illustrated presentation, Jacquelyn Williamson reconstructs the architecture, art, and inscriptions from the site to demonstrate Kom el-Nana is the location of Queen Nefertiti’s ‘Sunshade of Re’ Temple as well as another more enigmatic structure there that served the funerary needs of the non-royal courtiers at the ancient city.

The art and inscriptions provide new information about Queen Nefertiti and challenge assumptions about her role in Pharaoh Akhenaten’s religious movement dedicated to the sun god Aten.

Jacquelyn Williamson is Assistant Professor of Art and Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean World at George Mason University

This event will be held at Bamian Afghan Cuisine: 5634 Leesburg Pike / Falls Church / Virginia / 22041.

The luncheon begins at 2:00 PM; the lecture begins at 3:00 PM.

Aegean-Style Wall Painting


The Brilliance of Aegean Bronze Age Wall Paintings

Emily Egan

This event is sponsored by the Hellenic Society Prometheus

The arc of magnificent Aegean-style wall painting began in Minoan Crete during the Middle Bronze Age. This style of pictorial art then spread to other Aegean islands and to the Mycenaean mainland.

By the collapse of the Bronze Age at the end of the thirteenth century BCE, this Greek art form had reached its apex, especially demonstrated in the extraordinary development and novel uses of color. Notable in this development was the use of "abstract" or "artificial" color, in which artists decorated subjects with seemingly nonsensical hues that veered away from naturalism. Among the subjects of this bold coloration were flora and fauna, particularly sea life.

This presentation explores this use of colors with prominent examples of wall paintings from Knossos, Mycenae, Tiryns, and Pylos.

Emily Egan is Assistant Professor of Eastern Mediterranean Art and Archaeology at the University of Maryland

This event will be held at Raaga Indian Restaurant: 5872 Leesburg Pike / Falls Church / Virginia / 22041

The luncheon begins at 2:00 PM; the lecture begins at 3:00 PM

Prior Lectures


Sunday, September 8, 2019

Recent Excavations Reveal the Real History of the Trojan War

C. Brian Rose

In 1988 archaeologists renewed their excavations of the Bronze Age, Greek, and Roman times at the site of Troy in modern-day Turkey. Work was concentrated primarily on the theater, Temple of Athena, Council House, and the Sanctuary of the Samothracian Gods. The Bronze Age fortifications and Roman houses in the Lower City were also extensively investigated.

Excavations thus far have clarified the nature of habitation at the site during the late Bronze Age (15th - 12th centuries B.C.E.), which includes the time of the famous Trojan War. Significant findings were also made in the period of the rise in the city's fortunes during the reign of Augustus (27 B.C.E. – 14 C.E.) and his Julio-Claudian successors.

These recent discoveries uncovered at Troy will be contrasted with the Homeric tradition: How have the excavations confirmed or altered our understanding of the Trojan War?

C. Brian Rose is Professor of Archaeology at the University of Pennsylvania; Curator-in-Charge, Mediterranean Section, University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology; Head of Post-Bronze Age Excavations at Troy, and; Co-Director of the Gordion Excavations

Ancient Excavation

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Archaeology at Tel Akko: New Approaches to Excavating and Preserving Akko’s Cultural Heritage

Ann Killebrew

As one of the few safe anchorages along the southern Levantine coast, Akko has served as a major maritime center and crossroads between east and west over five millennia. Located on the outskirts of the modern Israeli city of Akko, the tel was inhabited from the Early Bronze Age into the Hellenistic period.

The renewed excavations at Tel Akko under the direction of Penn State’s Ann Killebrew incorporate a novel, integrated, “total archaeology” approach to exploring and preserving the site’s past, present, and future.

This lecture will present the results of ten years of excavations at Canaanite and Phoenician Akko, including the discovery of a Phoenician iron smithing industrial center; the development of cutting-edge technologies to document and reconstruct the site’s past, and; the role of the city’s diverse local communities in the protection of Akko’s shared cultural heritage.

Ann Killebrew is an Associate Professor at Pennsylvania State University and Co-Director of Excavations at Tel Akko.

Location: Duangrat's Thai Restaurant / 5878 Leesburg Pike | Falls Church, VA 22041   Time:  2:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Philistine Cemetery

Sunday, November 3, 2019

DNA Evidence for the Origins of the Philistines

Daniel Master

Groundbreaking testing of Philistine DNA reveals they migrated across the Mediterranean and settled in Ashkelon by the twelfth century BCE. These recent genetic results may help resolve the long-disputed origins of the Philistines.

Philistine DNA input was found in bone samples taken from infants buried under the floors of their homes as well as from remains in a newly discovered cemetery in Ashkelon. Researchers determined Philistines from across all time periods derived most of their ancestry from the local Levantine gene pool. Individuals who lived in early Iron Age Ashkelon, in contrast, had a European-derived ancestral component that was not present in their Bronze Age predecessors.

The study further demonstrated this European-related genetic component was subsequently diluted over the next centuries by the local Levantine gene pool, suggesting intensive admixture between local and foreign populations. While the study revealed a change in the Philistines’ genetic profile over time, archaeological discoveries there show continuity in their ethnicity.

Daniel Master is Professor of Archaeology at Wheaton College and Director of the Leon Levy Expedition to Ashkelon.

Illustration of the City Hazor

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Trowel v Text: Which Tells the Real Stories of the Fate of Hazor?

Elizabeth Bloch-Smith

Hazor was once the largest and most important city in biblical-era Israel. The Bible gave it the title: "the head of all those kingdoms." Today, Tel Hazor presents a unique opportunity to study physical remains in conjunction with biblical texts. Detailed publication of the well-excavated site allows reconstruction from its Late Bronze Age settlement that ended in a 13th century B.C.E. conflagration through its Iron Age II destruction in 732 B.C.E. and abandonment.

In this illustrated presentation, variant biblical texts in Joshua, Judges, and Kings will be examined anew in light of the actual events documented by archaeological evidence at the site. Together, the physical remains and the various texts suggest a necessary reconstruction of Israelite traditions, both oral and written, of the conquest and settlement of the site.

Elizabeth Bloch-Smith is an archaeologist and scholar who teaches at the Princeton Theological Seminary.


Sunday, February 23, 2020

From Sectarianism to Consensus: The Rise of Rabbinic Judaism

Lawrence Schiffman

This event is Sponsored by the Haberman Institute for Jewish Studies and co-sponsored by the Jewish Federation of Greater Washington

The late Second Temple period (second century BCE onward) was an era of spiritual and religious ferment that manifested itself in a variety of Jewish groups such as the Sadducees, Essenes, Pharisees, Zealots, Nazarenes, and Boethusians. Each sect had its own approach to Jewish Law, religious and national identity, and social constructs.

The competition between these groups eventually helped to bring about the Great Revolt against Rome (66-73 CE) and the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple. In the aftermath of the destruction, a consensus eventually emerged around rabbinic Judaism that would sustain the Jewish people for two millennia.

Based on both textual sources and archaeological discoveries, this presentation reconstructs the nature and trajectory of this process and its testimony to the vitality of the Jewish tradition.

Lawrence Schiffman is the Judge Abraham Lieberman Professor of Hebrew and Judaic Studies at New York University and Director of the Global Institute for Advanced Research in Jewish Studies.

This event will be held at 7:30 pm at B'nai Israel Congregation: 6301 Montrose Road / Rockville / MD / 20852

This event does not require a reservation. Cash or check at the door.


Wednesday, May 20, 2020, at 8 PM via Zoom

Digging Up Armageddon: The Search for the Lost City of Solomon

Eric Cline

In 1925 archaeologists from the University of Chicago’s Oriental Institute began a fourteen-year excavation of the ancient site of Megiddo (biblical Armageddon), one of the most important cities in biblical times. A consequential 15th century BCE battle was fought there by Pharaoh Thutmose III against a Canaanite coalition. Another famous battle was waged there in 609 BCE between Egypt and the Kingdom of Judah, in which King Josiah fell.

Unfortunately, official publications from the Oriental Institute provide scant details behind their amazing discoveries, which include "Solomon's Stables" uncovered among twenty-six layers of ruins.

Some of the more compelling episodes in Chicago's search for Solomon's city at Megiddo will be presented in this illustrated lecture, drawn from a treasure trove of more than three decades worth of letters, cablegrams, cards, notes, and diaries. These materials shed substantial, often surprising light on the internal workings of the excavations and its discoveries, situated against the backdrop of the Great Depression and the growing troubles of the British Mandate between the two world wars.

Eric Cline is a Professor of Ancient History and Archaeology at George Washington University.

Cuneiform Tablet

Wednesday, June 3, 2020, at 8 PM via Zoom

The First Diasporas: Egypt and Babylonia

Gary Rendsburg

With the destruction of the First Temple in 586 B.C.E., the ancestors of the Jews left the land of Israel in large numbers. Over the course of the next two centuries, we find a considerable amount of archaeological evidence for Jewish life both in Egypt and Babylonia.

This evidence includes - most remarkably - the outpost of Jewish soldiers and their families at Elephantine, opposite Aswan in the far south of Egypt.

The evidence in Babylonia includes hundreds of cuneiform tablets attesting to Jewish businesses and mercantile interests. These people clearly took Jeremiah's charge (Chapter 29) to heart and successfully reconstructed their lives in exile: Build houses and settle down; plant gardens and eat what they produce. Marry and have sons and daughters; find wives for your sons and give your daughters in marriage, so that they too may have sons and daughters. Increase in number there; do not decrease. Also, seek the peace and prosperity of the city to which I have carried you into exile.”

Gary Rendsburg is the Blanche and Irving Laurie Professor of Jewish History at Rutgers University

Ancient Alexandria Map

Wednesday, June 10, 2020, at 8 PM via Zoom

Septuagint, Synagogue, and Symbiosis: The Jews of Hellenistic Egypt

Gary Rendsburg

The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Hellenism to the entire Near East in the late 4th century B.C.E. No Jewish community reflects the symbiosis of Hellenism and Judaism better than the large and thriving community of Egypt, especially in Alexandria.

Members of this Alexandria community produced a Greek translation of the Bible, built synagogues (called proseuche in Greek) dedicated to the Ptolemy kings and queens, wrote Jewish literature in Greek, and were fully integrated into the society and the economy. In one case, they even constructed a temple in Egypt (to rival the one in Jerusalem).

Gary Rendsburg is the Blanche and Irving Laurie Professor of Jewish History at Rutgers University


Wednesday, June 24, 2020, at 8 PM via Zoom

Pompeii, Herculaneum and the Aftermath of Vesuvius

Steven Tuck

Pompeii and Herculaneum are best known for their utter destruction by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE, and for remains preserved by volcanic ash. Less known is that there were survivors of this calamity, and about what happened to them.

Do we know which city or region hosted the most survivors? Did they all migrate to other coastal regions, or were they more widely dispersed? What critical social and economic factors guided the decisions of the survivors about where to resettle?

Can we actually trace the fate of surviving families and specific individuals in the aftermath of the eruption? Did any regain prominence within the Roman Empire?

This lecture also investigates the Roman government intervention and response to natural disasters. What was the government’s role, if any, in handling resettlement?

Steven Tuck is Professor of Classics at Miami University

Battle of Chaeronea

Wednesday, July 8, 2020

Chaeronea: The Battle That Led to the Triumph of the West

Peter Krentz

This event is co-sponsored by the Hellenic Society Prometheus

A century and a half after they repelled the forces of the vast Persian Empire, the southern Greeks lost to Philip II’s Macedonians at Chaironeia in 338 BCE. Philip’s victory was recognized at the time as the end of Greek freedom.

Philip organized the Greeks into an alliance, had himself named its leader, declared war against the Persians, and sent an advance force into Asia. After his assassination, his son Alexander carried out the conquest of the Persians that Philip had planned.

Incorporating archaeological discoveries, this lecture will explore how Philip succeeded where the Great Persian Kings Darius and Xerxes had failed. The battle shares a particular puzzle with the Persian War battle of Marathon in 490: In both cases, the invaders had cavalry, but no cavalry is mentioned in descriptions of the fighting. Did Philip owe his victory to a dramatic cavalry charge led by his son Alexander?

Peter Krentz, W. R. Grey Professor of Classics and History | Chair of Classics at Davidson College

Sunken City

Wednesday, July 22, 2020, at 8 PM via Zoom

Treasures of Ancient Egypt: Sunken Cities

Peter Schertz

This event is co-sponsored by the DC chapter of ARCE (American Research Center in Egypt)

The cities of Thonis-Heracleion and Canopus sank into Egypt’s Aboukir Bay some twelve hundred years ago. Once centers of international trade and home to major religious cults and celebrations, these cities were virtually forgotten until the underwater archaeologist, Franck Goddio rediscovered them in 1996.

What Goddio found were not only the remains of major religious complexes closely tied to maintaining the legitimacy of the reigning pharaoh and dynastic continuity during the Late Period and Ptolemaic Period, but also a wealth of artifacts associated with the annual celebration of the Mysteries of Osiris that ensured the fertile of the land and Egypt’s well-being.

Peter Schertz will introduce the exhibition Treasures of Ancient Egypt: Sunken Cities currently at the Virginia Museum of Fine Art, focusing especially on the topic of continuity and change in the art and religion of Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt.

Peter Schertz is the Curator of Ancient Art at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts

Tower of Babel

Wednesday, August 5, 2020, via Zoom

Israelite and Persian Perspectives on Babylon's Great Monuments: The Tower of Babel and the Ishtar Gate

David Vanderhooft

The Hebrew Bible is very familiar with the city of Babylon and refers to it more often than any other city beyond Israel. Babylon was understood as the quintessential foreign city. Its massive architecture, particular topography, and learned traditions inspired both respect and condemnation. The story of the “city and tower” in Genesis 11:1–9 even concedes, contrary to the arguments of most interpreters, that the tower was actually completed. It stood, in a literary sense, as the pole around which Israel’s historical narratives revolve.

Meanwhile, for the earliest Achaemenid kings of the Persian empire, Babylon offered architectural examples for use in their new imperial style. One structure, in particular, the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, made a dramatic impression and prompted the construction of an exact replica at Tol-e Ajori, a site west of Persepolis excavated in recent years by a joint Italian-Iranian team. The structure at Tol-e Ajori represents a kind of celebration in the brick of Babylon’s cosmic monumentality.

David Vanderhooft is Associate Professor in the Theology Department at Boston College

Cooking in Israel

Wednesday, August 19, 2020, at 8 PM via Zoom

Food, Glorious Food! Home Cooking in Ancient Israel

Cynthia Shafer-Elliott

The subject of food has taken a central role in the cultural stage. There are numerous podcasts, television and radio shows, celebrity chefs, and even entire television channels dedicated to the cooking of food. This trend in food has even spread to the academic arena and has been the topic of much research in various fields, including Biblical Studies and Biblical Archaeology.

In this presentation, Dr. Cynthia Shafer-Elliott will talk about the food prepared by the average ancient Israelite household. By utilizing the methods of household archaeology, ethnoarchaeology, and texts from the Hebrew Bible, we will attempt to better understand what and how the Israelites prepared their food on a daily basis.

Cynthia Shafer-Elliott is the Associate Dean, Faculty of Theology and Associate Professor, Hebrew Bible & Archaeology at William Jessup University


Wednesday, September 2, 2020, at 8 PM EST via Zoom

The Blood-Drenched Sea

Alfred S. Bradford

This presentation will begin with highlighting the only physical representation of an ancient sea battle, memorialized in an Egyptian temple relief. This battle featured an array of Sea Peoples contesting with the naval forces of Pharaoh Ramses III early in the twelfth century BCE.

The next phase of the lecture will focus on naval clashes for which there were eye-witness accounts, such as the  Battle of Salamis, fought between an alliance of Greek city-states  and the Persian Empire in 480 BCE.  Later that century Thucydides’ wrote an account of the Peloponnesian War that featured ships such as triremes, sea battles, and naval policy. Little physical evidence survives of triremes, yet we know Thucydides commanded a squadron of this feared ship of war.

The final element of the presentation will feature accounts derived from secondary sources, such as the sea battles of the First Punic War. The Roman Republic lost countless ships and crews during the First Punic War, due to storms and engagements with the Carthaginians. In terms of ships and casualties, this was the costliest naval war ever fought. In particular, the disaster off the coast Camarina, Sicily in 255 BCE, destroyed two hundred seventy Roman ships with over one hundred thousand dead.

Alfred S. Bradford holds the John Saxon Chair in Ancient History at the University of Oklahoma

The Aegean from Bronze Age to Iron Age

Wednesday, September 16, 2020, at 8 PM EST via Zoom

So You Survived the Mycenaean Collapse – Now What?
Evolving Ways of Life and Death in the Post-palatial Aegean

Sarah Murray, University of Toronto

One of the great mysteries of prehistory concerns the circumstances surrounding the famous collapse of complex states in the Eastern Mediterranean at the end of the Late Bronze Age. In this lecture, the question of what caused the collapse is set aside and instead considers what life was like for those who survived to dwell in its aftermath. As catastrophic as were the disruptions that swept the region around 1200 BCE, it is clear that life did go on in their wake.

This lecture focuses on developments in the archaeological record of Greece, where the twelfth and eleventh centuries are known as the Post-palatial period. The presentation reviews a range of material evidence, from settlement patterns to mortuary behavior, and reconstructs some of the realities, strategies, and coping mechanisms that characterized life for the survivors of collapse in this dramatic, tumultuous period of the Mediterranean past.

Sarah Murray is Assistant Professor in the Department of Classics, University of Toronto And Co-Director, Bays of East Attica Regional Survey

Lost Gospels

Wednesday, October 7, 2020, at 7:30 PM EST via Zoom

"Lost Gospels" and Other Christian Apocrypha: New Discoveries and New Perspectives

Tony Burke, York University

It is a common misconception (encouraged by intentional sensationalism) that apocryphal Christian texts—such as the Gospel of Thomas or the Acts of Peter—were “lost” before their rediscovery by scholars, sometimes revealed in dramatic announcements and high profile publications.

In truth, most apocryphal texts enjoyed a friendly co-existence with canonical Scripture throughout Christian history, and their “discovery” often amounts to nothing more than their transition from manuscript to print. Some texts have indeed been lost to history, and others recovered in fragmentary form thanks to archaeological excavations and happenstance discoveries, but likely their loss is due more to accidents of history than efforts at ecclesiastical censorship.

This presentation will introduce viewers to the broad range of apocryphal texts now known to scholars and illustrate the ways these texts have been used over time in Christian liturgy, literature, art, drama, and music. Far from “lost,” apocryphal texts have been and continue to be vital components of Christian culture.

Tony Burke is a Professor in the Department of the Humanities at York University in Toronto